Dr Sam Pitroda
The father of India’s communication revolution”, Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda, or Dr Sam Pitroda as he is better known, was born in Titlagarh, Orissa in 1942. Dr. Pitroda is presently the chairman of India’s National Knowledge Commission, besides being the Chairman and CEO of World-Tel Limited and the founder and CEO of C-SAM, Inc. He also worked as an advisor to the United Nations in 1992.
His parents had migrated to Orissa from Gujarat. They were deeply influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and his philosophy. Sam completed his Masters in Physics and Electronics from Maharaja Sayajirao University in Vadodara, following which he went to the United States to do a Masters in Electrical Engineering. Thereafter he worked at GTE and formed Wescom Switching, Inc. He has many technology patents to his name and was involved in research work on telecommunications and handheld computing. He introduced microprocessors in telephone switches leading to digital switching and invented the Electronic Diary in 1975.
He designed his own computer-themed card game called Compucards in 1983. He returned to India in 1984 on the advice of the then Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi and founded the Center for Development of Telematics (C-DOT). In 1987, he became advisor to the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and was responsible for revolutionizing India’s foreign and domestic telecommunications policies. He is widely known as the brain behind the introduction of the Public Call Offices (PCO) across the length and breadth of the country.
He left the country once again after a spat with K.P. Unnikrishnan, the Minister for Telecommunication in the V.P. Singh government. The present UPA government at the Centre constituted the National Knowledge Commission, of which Mr.Pitroda is the Chairman.
1. Where and what kind of a family was Sam Pitroda born in?
A. Sam Pitroda was born in Titlagarh, Orissa on 4th May 1942 in a large family of seven brothers and sisters. His father believed in educating his children and letting them do what they wanted to do.
2. Pitroda did his Masters in Physics and Electronics from Baroda.
3. Pitroda started his career in digital Technology at GTE Inc., Chicago, USA.
4. He opened a telephone exchange company called Wescom Switching in 1974.
5. Pitroda thought of setting up cheap rural exchanges when he made his first telephone call after moving to USA to study Electrical Engineering.
6. He visited Saudi American Bank in Jeddah as a venture capitalist.
7. Indian Prime Minister Mr. Rajiv Gandhi made him his chief scientific Advisor and provided the opportunity to start a new public-sector venture called Centre for the Development of Telematics (C-Dot)
8. Rural automatic exchanges were provided with SS7 Intelligent Networking Signaling Systems. Which are used to find out if a number busy or available and to check up the database of telephone numbers.
9. According Sam Pitroda, we need to make use of IT to fulfill basic human needs related to food, water, sanitation, literacy and health. It must speed up the process of nation-building using the tools available and it should help us to handle problems in core areas like governance, commerce, finance, education, health, agriculture, environment, legal issues and employment.
10. Pitroda’s idea of electronic wallet does not contain any currency. It would contain only plastic currency – credit card, debit card and other cards like health card, insurance card, driving license etc.
A digital wallet (also known as an e-wallet) allows users to make electronic commerce transactions quickly and securely.
A digital wallet functions much like a physical wallet. The digital wallet was first conceived as a method of storing various forms of electronic money (e-cash), but with little popularity of such e-cash services, the digital wallet has evolved into a service that provides internet users with a convenient way to store and use online shopping information.

Write as many synonyms as you can for the following words.
Elegant: graceful, attractive, stylish, aesthetic, appealing, charismatic, dazzling, cute, charming
Substitute: replace, alternative, exchange, instead, lieu, redeem, supplant, supersede
Steep: slope, angle, lean, tilt, incline, skew, slant, oblique, rake
Probability: possible, probable, avenue, chance, permutation
Gaze: behold, cast, glance, glare, espy, focus, eye, glimpse
Write as many antonyms as possible
Downwards: upwards, heavenwards, skyward, uphill
Quickly: slowly, nudge, sluggish, steadily.
Continue: cease, discontinue, abandon, abort, break, squash, terminate
Hard: soft, gentle, fluffy, frothy, furry, silky, spongy
Add: remove, debug, drain, sweep, tow away, plunder
Write one-word substitutes for the following descriptions
1. Imitate others to cause amusement  mimic, ape
2. Information of death given in newspapers with a brief history obituary
3. Institution where persons suffering from tuberculosis are given treatment sanatorium
4. Knowledge of everything  omniscience
5. Of the same kind or nature  similar/homogeneous/analogous
Write the meanings of the following idiomatic expressions and use them in sentences of your own:
1. As different as chalk from cheese – extremely opposites
2. Come off with flying colors – successful
3. Cut both ways – (of an action, argument, etc.) to have two opposite effects or results
4. Between the devil and the deep sea – in a difficult situation where there are two equally unpleasant or unacceptable choices
5. Face the music – to accept the criticism or punishment for something
Write the meanings of the following phrasal verbs and use them in sentences of your own
1. Keep on: to continue
2. Let down: to disappoint
3. Look up: to become better or improve or to find sth
4. Put off : delay or dislike
5. Run out of : to finish a supply of sth or to use up or exhaust
Correct the following sentences wherever necessary (Answers)
1. The union leaders attacked the chairman’s views.
2.      The inspector was awarded/rewarded with a cash prize for his alertness.
3.      The company could not bear the burden of heavy taxes.
4.      Computers have greatly benefited the communication network in the country.
5.      The management refused to bow down to workers’ demands.
Complete the following sentences choosing the appropriate word from among the choices given.
1.      The dealer has …….. to give me a new one. (agreed/accepted)
2.      In case I forget to return this, please ………….. me. (remember/remind)
3.      The worker’s threat to go on a strike did not have any ……….. on the management. (affect/effect)
4.      The misfortune did not ………..   him much. (effect/affect)
5.      The baby kept weeping all ………the night. (through/throughout)
Cloze call
Read the following text and fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.
The digital age has added a new dimension to India’s dilemma. Its information technology (IT) prowess is rated among the best in the world. Yet it is unable to shrug off the “developing nation” tag where social issues such as poverty, illiteracy and unemployment are concerned. IT is being blamed by some for being the cause for the digital divide among people and states. But others feel this modern tool alone can bridge this yawning gap between the haves and have-nots.

A mysterious property of lightning has been confirmed. Just before a flash of lightning lights the sky, a huge blast of x-rays or other high-energy particles are released. The phenomenon means physicists may have to rethink how lightning is made. Past studies of lightning have produced occasional hints of x-ray bursts, but the signals were swamped by the electromagnetic noise which accompanies lightning. The burst means something odd is generated in the air, as negative charges from the clouds work their way down towards the ground. One way x-rays could be generated is if electrons were being ripped away from air molecules and accelerated close to the speed of light. Such runaway electrons are seen in fusion experiments. Another implication of the finding is that anyone standing close to a lightning strike will get a small dose of x-rays of about the same energy as an x-ray at the dentist.


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